The Mid Atlantic Ridge is part of the global mid ocean ridge system. It is a divergent plant boundary where continental plates are moving apart creating the ridge that separates the two continents. In the northern part of the ridge the Eurasian Plate is moving eastward and the North American Plate is moving westward. The boundary between the two plates is the Mid-Atlantic ridge.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge runs down center of the ocean
Southern section of the Atlantic Ridge
The southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge separates the African Plate and the South American Plate. The entire ridge extends from northeast of Greenland southward to the Gakkel Junction in the South Atlantic Ocean. The entire global mid ocean ridge system which is almost a continuous system of rift zones is 40,000 kilometers long. It is the largest geological feature on our planet and lies underwater except for a few islands.
First discovery of the Mid Atlantic Ridge
The HMS Challenger expedition in 1872 carried onboard three scientists that were studying the ocean floor because a transatlantic telegraph cable was going to be installed in the near future. The scientists discovered a large rise in the ocean floor during the expedition. Early in 1850 Matthew Fontaine Maury inferred there was a ridge in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean the HMS Challenger confirmed its existence during the1872 expedition.
Mapping the ridge with sonar
The Mid Atlantic Ridge was mapped by three scientists using sonar that had been developed during the World War II. They found rift zones that included valleys and ridges the entire length of the Atlantic Ocean. Running down the entire length to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was a central valley where many earthquakes occurred. This discovery led to the general acceptance of Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift which became known as the Theory of Plate Tectonics.
Central rift valley
The highest point on the ridge is the central valley that runs down the center of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. It lies about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet) below sea level. The edges of the bulging seafloor drops down below sea level on its flanks 5,000 meters. Magma erupting on the seafloor in the central valley creates the newest crust on the surface of the Earth.
Walking on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland Sarah Masters
Iceland lies on the ridge
Iceland lies on the northern part of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. It has formed over both the ridge and a hot spot. Iceland on the western side is part of the North American Plane and on the eastern side lies the Eurasian Plate. The Thingvellir Rift Valley on Iceland is about 10,000 years old where the plates are separating.
Thingvellir Rift Valley
The Thingvellir Rift Valley has widened 70 meters (230 feet) and sunk 40 meters (131 feet during the last 10,000 years). Volcanoes have erupted creating new land on the island as the continents drift apart. Fifteen volcanoes have erupted on Iceland in the past 100 years.
The Oceans on our planet cover approximately 70% of the Earth. The water that covers our planet is essential to life on our planet. From space the Earth looks like a blue ball partly covered with white wispy clouds.
The Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia are one of the seven great wonders of the natural world. Find out more about this World Heritage Site.
The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a divergent plate boundary where continental plates are moving apart down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
Viperfish are one of the fiercest predators living in the deep ocean. Find out how they attract their prey with a “fishing lure” and impale their prey with fang-like teeth.
Oceanic Zones are specific areas of the ocean. Most ocean life lives in one specific zone. Marine biologists have discovered some animals, whales, can dive to great depths to hunt for food.
The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami lifted the seabed and moved it sideways along a 1,600 km (1000 mile) crack in the Earth’s surface. The Indian Plate slipped beneath the Burma Plate during the earthquake.
Rift Valleys are not caused by erosion but are created by tectonic activity. These valleys form when oceanic plates are moving in different directions forming a divergent boundary.
Marine Sponges are sessile animals that look like plants. Some sponges have been found living on the ocean floors that are over 8,800 meters (5.5 miles) deep.
Caribbean Spiny Lobsters are found in tropical and sub-tropical waters. They are also known as Florida spiny lobsters and are famous for their migration each year into deeper waters.
Rogue Waves for centuries were believed to be tall tales sailors told during shore leave. They said waves rose out of the sea as a vertical wall of water that crashed into a ship without warning.
Ghost Crabs live on beaches in tropical and sub-tropical regions. They are found along beaches from Rhode Island south to Brazil. They only need to wet their gills to live on land.
Black Smokers (hydrothermal vents) were discovered by scientists aboard the Alvin in 1977. An entire ecosystem lives around the chimneys with bacteria the base of the food chain.